1. Transactional leaders are leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
2. Transformational leaders are leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation and possess charism
3. Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership.
4. The evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over the transactional variety is overwhelmingly impressive.
a. Transformational leaders motivate subordinates to perform at expected levels by helping them recognize task responsibilities, identify goals, acquire confidence about meeting desired performance levels, and understand how their needs and the rewards that they desire are linked to goal achievement.
b. Transformational leaders motivate individuals to perform beyond normal expectations by inspiring subordinates to focus on broader missions that transcend their own immediate selfinterests, to concentrate on intrinsic higher-level goals (such as safety and d security), and to have confidence in their abilities to achieve the extraordinary missions articulated by the leadership.
c. Transformational leadership is not a substitute for transactional leadership; it is an enhancement.
d. Charisma is the leader’s ability to inspire pride, faith, and respect; to recognize what is really important, and to articulate effectively a sense of mission, or vision, that inspires followers.
1) Charisma was once thought to be an inborn personality trait.
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